BREXIT CAUSES AND RESULTS

BREXIT CAUSES

Britain and Exit

United States exports 66,2 billion USD product to UK in 2018. Also US imports 66,1 billion USD products from UK. Its show that US vs UK trade capacity is only %3 of US total international trade. Brexit may increase the trade between UK and US cause UK lost their customs free export advantages with EU 

Brexit is a word which is a combination of the words etmek Britain etmek and ı Exit Bre and is used to express the UK's exit from the European Union.

For years the UK has experienced a conflicting and sometimes contentious relationship with the European Union. London has separated itself from the EU's common euro currency and some of its central policies, including the border-independent Schengen region. Nevertheless, the EU's failure to respond to recent crises has led to a renewed perception of Europe.

In the UK, Brexit supporters argued during their campaign that the UK would regain its national sovereignty through the EU, better manage the migratory crisis especially after the Syrian civil war, the EU would get rid of coercive arrangements and provide a more dynamic growth.

The decision to leave the Brexit referendum in the UK in June 2016 led to turmoil in financial markets and the resignation of Prime Minister David Cameron. Now led by Prime Minister Theresa May, Britain is negotiating a new relationship with the EU.

In May 2017, the UK, which has pledged to leave the EU Single Market in May 2017, is expected to lose its biggest trading partner, namely serious losses in many sectors in the EU market, the deterioration of the UK financial sector, long-lasting political uncertainty and even the collapse of the British community. possible risks can be confronted in the near future. Brexit, meanwhile, can accelerate nationalist movements on the continent from Scotland to Hungary, with unpredictable results for the EU.

What is the history of Britain's EU membership?

Europe's first attempt to integrate was established after the Second World War, in the hope of preventing a more destructive war from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and then the European Economic Community (EEC). Britain's accession to the European Union took place very soon.

"We have not entered the EU with the same political requirements as France and Germany," argued Robin Niblett, president of the London-based think tank Chatham House. "We have not been invaded, we have not lost the war, and have historical ties from our empire and from our community to many parts of the world," he said.

England did not participate in the EEC until 1973. The British people approved the membership in the 1975 referendum, but the suspicion of a political unity with the rest of Europe remained strong. Critics argued that the European project went beyond the economic integration to the European "super-state".

As the integration deepened throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the UK led the leaders to be decommissioned. The UK did not participate in the single currency or the border-independent Schengen region and the budget contribution was reduced. In 1988, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher said, "We have not successfully retreated to put the borders in the UK at the European level again."

Why did British Prime Minister David Cameron try to change the terms of membership?
Many conservative British citizens have never been compatible with EU membership, and discontentment has increased, particularly with the migration crisis from eastern European countries. The UK was uncomfortable with the immigration it had received from the EU, as it had already accepted the free movement of EU citizens.

Economic migration from Eastern Europe rose rapidly after the enlargement of the EU in 2004 and 2007, and net migration to the UK approached three hundred thousand people a year by 2015. Conservative Prime Minister Cameron described the situation as unsustainable. "We never thought that free movement would trigger an uncontrollable migration movement," he said.

In 2015, the EU-UK Independence Day Party (UKIP) was the party that led to the highest rate of votes in 2014. Cameron told the people of Britain that Britain voted in an anti-immigration platform in the European Parliament elections.

The wave of asylum seekers crossing the block boundaries also caused tension. The United Kingdom is exempting hundreds of thousands of migrants and refugees from the resettlement plans in the Middle East and Africa in 2015 because of EU elections.

But Brussels's stern response to European reception shows the EU's dysfunction and UK politicians suggested that the EU asylum policy could be changed to make it more difficult for immigrants to be deported from other EU countries. (In the current system, asylum seekers outside the EU are expected to remain in the first EU country they enter.)

The Eurozone crisis has also created tension after an unprecedented "fiscal tightening" to coordinate the EU's budget policy. Cameron rejected this idea in 2012, stating that it was harmful to Britain's financial sector.

In a speech in 2013, Cameron attacked the euro zone flaws and the EU's bureaucracy and the lack of democratic accountability. Cameron also promised to hold a referendum on Britain's EU membership if it wins the 2015 election.

In November 2015, Cameron announced that he would seek EU reform in four main areas before a referendum: national sovereignty, immigration policy, financial and economic regulations, and competitiveness. In February 2016, EU leaders took relaxing decisions on EU protection for non-Euro currencies, new restrictive regulations on migrants, commitment to reducing EU regulations, and "closer union".

With these reforms, Cameron hoped to suppress opposition to integration with the EU in the country, but with the fear of mass migration along with several major terrorist attacks in Europe, dissidents of secession increased. CFR Senior Member Sebastian Mallaby said, "What he wasn't bargaining for was a great deterioration of the immigration crisis."

BREXIT CAUSES

How did the referendum ”Brexit Refer result?

In the referendum on 23 June 2016, Britain's voters asked: "Should the UK remain a member of the European Union or should it be separated from the European Union?"

Although the Left was largely supported to stay in the EU, it contained a broad array of ideologies of ideology, ranging from confused Laborites to UKIP on the right. In the meantime, the referendum deeply disseminated Britain's main conservative parties. Cameron attributed his political future to yes votes and declared his resignation following his defeat, but about half of the conservative party left office, including ministers in the cabinet.

Among the high profile conservatives were former London Mayor Boris Johnson, former party leader Iain Duncan Smith, Justice Minister Michael Gove and Employment Minister Priti Patel.

Although the polls showed that the UK people would vote for unity, the British people decided to leave 52% to 48%. The rate of participation in the referendum was 72%, which gives an idea of ​​the inaccuracy and misconceptions.

What do the British people vote for Leaving?

It will take two years to negotiate the withdrawal of Britain. However, the UK government may choose when Article 50, which will make Brexit irreversible, will become operational. In a speech made in January 2017, the new Prime Minister May, "We are leaving the common market, but the government will make a new trade agreement with the EU."

It will be extremely complicated after negotiations start. The UK will need to separate from EU regulations, determine the status of millions of British citizens residing in the EU, and determine the status of EU citizens outside the UK, and identify numerous transitional processes to determine the future of the UK-EU. Security cooperation. The final withdrawal agreement must be approved by the majority in the European Parliament, as well as by a major majority of EU countries.


Separately but at the same time, the UK will have to negotiate the conditions for future relations with the EU. It is unclear how such a relationship will become, but many countries outside the EU offer potential models. For example, Norway is part of the European Economic Area (EEA), which provides partial access to the Single Market in Goods and Services. However, while contributing to the EU budget and complying with EU regulations, it has no say in creating EU law.

Switzerland is not part of the EEA; however, it has partial access to the Single Market through a network of bilateral agreements that comprise about 80 percent of the UK economy, but which includes goods. Turkey has a customs union, the free market of goods bought duty-free means to be sold, but not services.

However, both Norway and Switzerland recognize the free movement of people from any place in the EU, which is one of the primary complaints of the Discrimination campaign in the UK. With the UK government's assurance that it will not stay in the Single Market and France will pay a "price" for quitting, the fears have increased the fears of "Brexit" that the negotiations could not produce a number of specific arrangements.

What were the arguments for leaving the EU?

The recovery of sovereignty was at the forefront of the Permission Campaign. They accuse the EU of making the UK a stifling bureaucracy with increasingly expanding regulations. "The laws governing citizens in this country are decided by politicians from other nationalities that we have never chosen and cannot be," Justice Minister Michael Gove said.

Migrants were one of the leading complaints. The number of EU immigrants in the UK almost tripled (from about one million to three million) between 2004 and 2015, and almost entirely influenced a new citizen from Poland, Bulgaria and Romania.

At the same time, the terrorist attacks on EU citizens in Paris and Brussels brought concerns that the free movement of the people left Britain vulnerable. Former UK vice-president Richard Dearlove argued that with over three thousand EU nationals traveling to Syria to fight the self-proclaimed Islamic State, the main effect of Brexit's control over immigration would be the safety benefit. (Critics in the opinion say Brexit will harm intelligence cooperation.)

Matthew Goodwin, an expert in British politics at the University of Kent on the problem of immigration, strongly combines concerns over identity, economic security and terrorism. "The referendum is about immigration, as it relates to Britain's relationship with Europe."

For some analysts, European institutions are not equipped to respond to the economic challenges of the modern world. Economist Roger Bootle, who writes on European Issues, argues that the EU's focus on "standardization of everything from occupational health regulations to the size of olive oil containers across the continent" threatens Europe with lasting low growth and high unemployment.

According to Dominic Cummings, one of the Brexit supporters and architects, the economic dynamism in England after Brexit will increase. Önems The EU is exceptionally opaque, extraordinarily slow, exceptionally bureaucratic, yapabil Cummings said. Ya Brexit, according to supporters, will be able to increase competitiveness and become independent of the EU bureaucracy and make trade agreements with fast-growing economies. left no other option than a non-functional union.

How does the UK benefit from membership and what are the risks of separation?
The UK is highly integrated with the rest of the EU in terms of trade, investment, migration and financial services (see Graph). Supporters of staying in the EU drew attention to risking this relationship: Cameron warned Finance Minister George Osborne to "leap into the darkness" when he foresaw "a convulsive shock".

After the Brexit game, the global markets were shaken. The British pound fell sharply to a low level over a hundred years. In contrast, the UK central bank has announced a broad package of incentive measures, including lowering interest rates for more than seven years.

At the same time, the UK has become the world's fastest growing economy, acting partly more strongly than expected in the manufacturing industry due to a weaker currency, but the International Monetary Fund economists have warned that this is only temporary.

The long-term outlook is still unclear. The economic arguments of the Brexit pro camp for the head of Peterson's Institute of International Economics and former member of the Bank of England, Adam Posen, were "fancy". He said that migration from the EU caused growth, which would allow the UK to carry more weight than trade in the UK, as the larger bloc could negotiate more favorable market access with foreign countries.

Other US observers cautioned Brexit that Britain would damage private relations with the United States. In his visit to the state in April 2016, President Barack Obama argued that EU membership increased Britain's global influence and supported US interests. The Trump administration, however, can take a different stance, praising the Brexit vote, and with the promise of a quick start to new trade negotiations between Britain and the United States.

The main developments will depend on how the relationship between the UK and the EU will continue. Losing unhindered access to more than five hundred million consumers and over $ 18 trillion in GDP and the European Union common market is putting more pressure on UK politicians in making trade agreements with the EU.

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