European Union

Maastrich Agreement

On 9-10 December 1991 at the AT summit in Maastricht, Germany, all problems and recommendations were put on the agenda. The Maastricht Treaty (EU Treaty), which included new decisions on economic and monetary union and the establishment of the foundations of the EU, was signed on 7 February 1992, entered into force on 1 November 1993 and the conditions for the introduction of the European currency in the EU Treaty and time schedule.

After the Single European Act (1987) and the Maastricht Treaty (1992), the European Community turned out to be an integrated political unity, subject to common laws in certain areas, each of which is no longer a community of independent states with autonomous legal systems.

The enactment of the Maastricht Treaty on the compulsory conditions for the accession of member states to the Economic and Monetary Union can be categorized under two main headings: making legislative changes to make the central banks independent, and harmonization with the ğ macroeconomic approach criteria Maastricht.

Maastricht criteria 
• The annual average inflation rate of each member may exceed the average of the three-member state's annual inflation rate by a maximum of 1.5 points.
• The ratio of planned, or actual public deficits to the gross domestic product of the Member States should not exceed 3 percent.
• It should not exceed 60 percent of the planned, or actual, public debt stock of the Member States to the gross domestic product.
• Each Member State may exceed the maximum rated interest rate of the three Member States which have the best results in terms of price stability by a maximum of 2 points.
• Member states' national currencies must remain within the "normal" fluctuation margin permitted by the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. (15 percent for the moment, but almost all countries remain within the 2.25 percent margin.)

European Union - Single Market

With the formation of the Single Market on 1 January 1993, the free movement of goods, capital, services and people between the 12 member states was fully ensured. In June 1993, at the Copenhagen Summit, where EU Heads of State and Government decided to expand the EU to include Central and Eastern European Countries (MDAU), EU membership criteria were set. These conditions, known as the Copenhagen Criteria, refer to the minimum requirements to be fulfilled by all candidate countries whose application for EU membership is accepted. Political and economic criteria and alignment with the acquis are as follows;

• Political criteria: a stable institutional structure in which democracy added to the article on full membership of the European Union Agreement is guaranteed, the rule of law, respect for human rights and minority rights.
• Economic criteria: a well-functioning market economy and the capacity to counter market forces and competitive pressure within the EU.
• Adoption of the Community acquis: commitment to the various political, economic and monetary objectives of the EU.

The candidate countries that want to be a member of the European Union will reorganize their political, economic and legal structures according to these criteria. A candidate country can join as a Union not as itself, but as a Union which it deems appropriate.


Transition to the Concept of Unity and Expansion Process

The EPB Report of Jacques Delors, prepared in accordance with the decisions of the European Communities on the 1988 Hannover Summit and announced on April 12, 1989, can be accepted as the beginning of the transition from the Common Market to the Economic and Monetary Union and from there to the political union. The Union began to be known as the European Union (EU) as of January 1, 1995 and became a member in 15 years with the participation of Austria, Finland and Sweden. 

The Intergovernmental Conference, which was initiated in March 1996, was completed with the Amsterdam Summit held on 16-17 June 1997 in order to determine the process of transition to single currency and enlargement of the EU. At the summit, it was confirmed that the EU started its 5th enlargement process and on 1 January 1999 the transition to Euro, the single currency, was confirmed. In addition, the ve Amsterdam Treaty ve was signed with the Common Foreign and Defense Policy, the Justice and Security Policy and some amendments to the Maastricht Treaty, and entered into force in May 1999.

In the 1990s, the removal of passport and customs controls within many EU borders made it easier to move from one place to another in Europe. As a result, more mobility was achieved for EU citizens. For example, since 1987, more than a million young Europeans have received education abroad with the support of the EU.

At the Luxembourg Summit, the launch of full membership negotiations with 10 Central and Eastern European countries (MDA country), the Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus (Greek Cypriot Administration) and Malta was approved and necessary timetables, procedures and support mechanisms were determined. It was decided that the accession negotiations with Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Estonia and GASC would be initiated immediately.

While the enlargement process continued, the EU continued its deepening efforts. On January 1, 1999, the euro became the official currency of the 11 member states (Germany, Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Netherlands, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal) and the conversion rates of the national currencies of the member countries to the Euro were irreversibly restored. It is fixed. Greece and Sweden, who failed to meet the requirements for accession with Denmark and the United Kingdom, remained candidates. On 1 January 2002, the European common currency Euro has officially entered into circulation in 12 countries and has been used as banknotes and coins. Thanks to its recovering economic situation, Greece has become a participating country for the Euro area.

On 1 May 2004, the 10 countries, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia joined the Union with the fifth and largest enlargement. On 1 January 2007 Bulgaria and Romania became members of the European Union. Thus, the number of EU members rose to 27. At the same time, the number of official languages ​​used in the Union was 23.

The Union has set out with a mini yol European model Birlik. There are currently 27 members. Considering the number of people waiting at the door, this number can be considered as 30. This large number will also have important effects on the functioning of the union.




With the formation of the Single Market on 1 January 1993, the free movement of goods, capital, services and people between the 12 member states was f
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