History Of European Union

The process of integration with the European Union corresponds to a long-term cooperation process with the addition of different types of projects and activities devoted to wide time intervals. There are three communities with common institutions within the European Union.
Among these, the first establishment was the European Coal and Steel Community (with the 1951 Treaty of Paris). 

Later, the European Economic Community (with the Treaty of Rome, 1957) and the European Atomic Energy Community were established respectively. At the end of this process, the communities removed all internal borders between the member states and established a single market. The European Union Treaty signed in Maastrich in 1992 established a European Union that advances towards economic and monetary union and includes intergovernmental cooperation in certain areas.

European Coal and Steel Community

The foundation of the European Union,  aftermath of World War II, it was shaped to strengthen the coal and steel sector, two main raw materials for the industry, and to maintain peace by controlling them with a supranational authority. The main objectives of A.K.Ç.T. are to contribute to the development of the member countries, to prevent unemployment and to increase the level of life. 

The main principles of the ECSC can be listed as the freedom of trade in coal and steel, the elimination of restrictions and privileges in the markets, the special intervention of the high authority and the free movement of workers.

After the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community, attempts have been made to establish the European Defense Community and the European Political Community, but these efforts have failed. On the one hand, the idea of ​​establishing NATO and, on the other hand, the realization that European integration took place in the economic sphere was more realistic. 

The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), such as the EEC, was established by the Treaty of Rome, which entered into force on 1 January 1958. As a result of the Merger Agreement (fusion agreement) signed by the founding members in 1965, a single Council, Commission and Parliament were formed for ECSC, EEC and EURATOM, their budgets were united and the term European Communities began to be used.

European Free Trade Association

European Free Trade Association - EFTA

The organization was founded in 1960 in Stockholm. In this organization was the founding members of England, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Portugal, Austria. In 1973, England and Denmark participated in Iceland, Iceland in 1986, Finland in 1986 and Liechtenstein in 1991. In 1988, Portugal, in 2000, Austria-Sweden-Finland abandoned the organization. 

EFTA provides trade liberalization to member states. According to the agreement, three countries of EFTA became part of the European Union's Internal Market, which had an impact in 1994 in the European Economic Area (EAA). Fourth country Switzerland chose to conclude agreements with the European Union. In addition, EFTA countries concluded a collective agreement with several countries around the world.

EFTA countries have abolished customs and equivalent taxes and other restrictions on industrial products, but have continued to implement their national legislation against third countries. Apart from this fundamental difference, EFTA and the other important differences of the EEC were the fact that EFTA did not include the agricultural sector in the free trade area. EFTA, which has lost its importance over time with the participation of a large number of its members to the EEC, today consists of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, and an European Economic Area (EEA) has been established between the three members of the EU and EFTA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway). 

In 1968, the aim was to establish a customs union between the member states as one of the objectives set out in the Treaties of Rome. From 1 July 1968, all trade barriers, including tariffs between member states, were abolished and a common customs policy was adopted against third countries. It was followed by the Hague summit that gathered a year later. At this summit, they expressed their intention to increase economic integration among the member countries and establish economic and monetary union. This stipulated that the customs union would be taken to a further stage.

The Treaties establishing the European Single Act and the European Communities, which entered into force on 1 July 1987, were amended extensively for the first time. New common policies have been established with the European Single Act and existing ones have been developed. In this framework, new articles on social policy, economic and social cohesion and environment have been added to the Treaty of Rome.

The EU and EU laws on the free movement of goods and goods constitute the basis of the European Single Market. The single market has important economic effects, such as providing new jobs, increasing production, and reducing inflation to a certain extent.



History of the EU. How European Union created. How the EU expanded. Which countries are EU member states.
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